Liquified Natural Gas in Nova Scotia

Nova Scotia Fracking Resource and Action Coalition Disappointed with Approval of Bear Head LNG plant

Although NOFRAC has chosen to focus our work on ensuring hydraulic fracturing would not take place in Nova Scotia, we also recognize fracking as a piece of the larger challenge of averting disastrous climate change.

So we are disappointed with the Nova Scotia government’s decision, via Minister of Environment Randy Delorey, to approve the proposed Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) export plant in Bear Head, on Canso Strait.


Nova Scotia has legislated targets for greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions, and admirably is on track for meeting those. But if built, Bear Head LNG would, by itself, increase GHG emissions 10% over 2012 levels. On top of that, the previously approved GoIdboro LNG project would increase GHG emissions by an additional 18%.


These two projects alone would add almost 30% to the province’s GHG emissions, at a time when we need to be moving decisively in the opposite direction.


In the conditions for approval, Minister Delorey has done no more than require that the Bear Head proponents back up their efficiency claims for limiting the production of greenhouse gases. The minister has not set conditions that would require significant reductions in these emissions.


Without further conditions placed on proposed LNG projects, it will be impossible for Nova Scotia to meet its legislated greenhouse gas reduction targets. We owe keeping those commitments to ourselves; and even more we owe it to our children and grandchildren.


It is worth noting that most, if not virtually all, of the gas for export will be piped here from the United States. The “economic opportunity” for building LNG plants in Nova Scotia, in spite of the distance from the gas production areas, is that public opposition and stricter regulations makes it virtually impossible to place new LNG plants on the Atlantic seaboard of the U.S.


It is time for the Minister to begin a discussion in Nova Scotia about the benefits and risks of LNG plants, and how (or whether) we can have this new industry in Nova Scotia without making climate change worse. That discussion will happen with or without our government; and the government’s approval of these projects is not by itself the social licence that the proponents require.


It is long past time for climate impacts to be a major factor in all government decisions.

Nova Scotia Fracking Resource and Action Coalition (NOFRAC)

May 27, 2015

Coalbed Methane in Nova Scotia: New Report Cites Concerns

2015-03 CBM Report Cover PageThis week, the Ecology Action Centre released a report based on science as well as local information from a freedom of information review, that directly impacts Nova Scotia communities and residents.

Coalbed methane (CBM) is a non-renewable fossil fuel that is being developed in Nova Scotia as a source of natural gas.  Coal bed methane extraction can cause severe consequences to the environment and public health. 

CBM brings unacceptable risks to drinking water, clean air, biodiversity and healthy vibrant communities.  The Ecology Action Centre works to ensure that communities have the right to limit, regulate or ban industrial activities that negatively impact health and the environment and that these rights should never be compromised.  Compared to development opportunities in wind, solar, geothermal and other renewables, development of CBM does not bring us closer to reaching our goals for greenhouse gas emissions or our renewable energy targets.  Every decision we make around energy production should be a decision to help mitigate climate change.

Through this report, we offer information on the potential environmental impacts of CBM, information about activities near Stellarton, Nova Scotia, and further educational resources on CBM.  We also offer examples of communities and people standing up for their rights to clean air and water in Australia, Wyoming and Alberta – areas where CBM is active.

 To read the full report, visit the coalbed methane webpage.

The Economics of Fracking: The uncut material of Dr. Michael Bradfield

Dr. Michael Bradfield is an economist who served on the Nova Scotia Independent Review of Hydraulic Fracturing. Yet his name does not appear on any of the chapters in the Hydraulic Fracturing Review Final report.

At a public talk at Thinker’s Lodge in Pugwash, audience members asked Dr. Bradfield why he had not authored a chapter of the Review’s Final Report. Bradfield explained that the material he had submitted for the report had not been acceptable to some panel members, and was either heavily edited or not included in the introductory or the summary and conclusions chapters for which they were intended.

NOFRAC requested and received permission from Dr. Bradfield to make his unpublished material available to the public.

The Economic, Social and Environmental Issues of Hydraulic Fracturing by Dr. Michael Bradfield was prepared by Dr. Bradfield in May 2014 to provide an economic background for the Review report, to be part of the introductory chapter.

This report was prepared to outline economic issues in Nova Scotia for the introductory chapter of the report, and to provide an economic summary for the concluding chapter. The paper was circulated to the other panel members in July 2014.

Dr. Bradfield is an internationally cited economist who taught at Dalhousie University for 39 years. His specialty is Regional Economics. His many articles cover a range of topics including foreign investment and Canada’s energy policies.

Bradfield has prepared briefs for civil society groups on issues relating to energy, social justice, and the environment for Royal Commissions and all levels of government including the National Energy Board, the Ontario Energy Board and the House of Commons.

Bradfield The Economic, Social and Environmental Issues of Hydraulic Fracturing May 2014

Bradfield The Economic Context of HF in NS

Proposed amendments to Nova Scotia’s proposed fracking ban

Bill 6 is the Government’s Bill on Hydraulic Fracturing. It will amend the Petroleum Resources Act to prohibit hydraulic fracturing in shale formations. The bill has been presented in the Legislature, and will go to Law Amendments very soon.

NOFRAC recommends the following changes be made to Bill 6:

  • Hydraulic fracturing should be defined in the Bill
  • Definition of hydraulic fracturing needs to be explicitly clear
  • Community consent must be defined and recognized in the Bill
  • Minister’s right to review the prohibition must be clearly defined
  • Testing and Research must be clearly defined and limited 

Read on for the full legal recommendations. To learn more about how you can participate in making Bill 6 the strong and clear ban on fracking we deserve, click here.

Read more

Letter to Minister Younger re upcoming Act to prohibit HF

On September 24, NOFRAC sent a letter to the Minister of Energy, Andrew Younger, with suggestions for points that the upcoming legislation should contain. The full text of the letter follows.

September 24, 2014

Honorable Andrew Younger
Department of Energy
RE:  Proposed Hydraulic Fracturing Act


Dear Minister Younger:

We were pleased to learn that the government will enact legislation to prohibit hydraulic fracturing for shale gas and oil in Nova Scotia (“Act”).

We have identified several key points that we believe will ultimately determine the effectiveness and impact of the Act.  As the government develops the proposed Act, we submit our thoughts on these issues for your consideration.

We hope that you will seriously consider the points we identify in drafting the proposed Act.  We would appreciate receiving a copy of the proposed Act at the earliest possible moment, so that we may timely provide more specific suggestions that are textual in character.

We would like to clarify that it is our intention not to distribute this memo to anyone outside the NOFRAC steering committee until we have received a substantive response to this memo or you have had a reasonable opportunity to do so.

We would appreciate an opportunity to meet with you to discuss these recommendations and to have a better understanding of your intent for the Act.


Nova Scotia Fracking Resource and Action Coalition (NOFRAC)
Mark Tipperman
Barb Harris
Gretchen Fitzgerald

Cc: Honorable Randy Delorey,  By email, Fax
1.       Definition of hydraulic fracturing

We suggest that the Province adopt either of these definitions of hydraulic fracturing in the new Act:
Importation of Hydraulic Fracturing Wastewater Prohibition Act, Section 2(a) defines hydraulic fracturing as follows:

“… the transmission of a carrier fluid to apply pressure and transport proppants to an underground geologic formation to create or enhance subsurface fractures and facilitate the release of any petroleum or natural gas, but does not include fracturing for the production of wells for potable water;”


The Council of Canadian Academies in its 2014 report, defines hydraulic fracturing as:

“Injecting fracturing fluids into the target formation at a force exceeding the parting pressure of the rock thus inducing a network of fractures through which oil or natural gas can flow to the wellbore.”  P. 224

Applying these definitions to specific target formations, as below, would make the Act relatively easy to interpret and enforce.

Other jurisdictions have adopted similar definitions. See Appendix A

2. Target formations covered by the Act

We suggest that the Act should apply:

to hydraulic fracturing for gas, oil or other hydrocarbons in tight formations, including shale and sandstone.


to hydraulic fracturing for unconventional gas, oil or other hydrocarbons, excluding coal bed methane.

The Wheeler Review Final Report states:

“In this report, we define “the process of hydraulic fracturing” (from our mandate) as: “the process of hydraulic fracturing and its directly associated activities and technologies for the purpose of unconventional gas and oil development. Throughout the document we use the term “unconventional gas and oil development,” and by this we infer “by hydraulic fracturing.” … In particular cases, we use the term  “hydraulic fracturing” to mean the specific technical activity.”[1]

Further, in Section 1.3, What are “shale gas” and “shale oil,” the review final report specifies,

“Unconventional gas and oil are broad descriptors used for the more popular terms “shale gas” or “shale oil” (CCA, 2014).”

Thus, the issues addressed by the Wheeler Review are broadly applicable to hydraulic fracturing for unconventional gas and oil, and should not be narrowed to “shale gas” only.

Further, the existing moratorium applies to hydraulic fracturing in any unconventional formation, be it shale, tight sandstone, or coal. Public opposition to fracking has not distinguished between these target formations, nor did the Wheeler Review.

We suggest that, at a minimum, the Act should prohibit hydraulic fracturing for gas, oil or other hydrocarbons in shale and tight sand formations. The published scientific literature contains various definitions, but most often considers hydraulic fracturing in shale and tight sands as substantially the same, and groups the two formations together. [2] [3] The potential risks and impacts are extremely similar in most of the areas addressed by the Wheeler review, including wastewater, fracking fluids, air emissions, risks to aquifers and surface waters, risks to health, surface build-out, industrialization of rural areas, community disruption, impacts on existing industries, and climate impacts. The amount of water used is often less in hydraulic fracturing in tight sands, but other issues and risks both above and below ground are essentially similar.

In Pictou and Cumberland, there appears to be potential for extraction of unconventional gas and oil from both shale and tight sandstone. Opposition to fracking has been strong in both of these areas of the province. Citizens in these areas participated in the review process and public meetings believing, as review documents stated, that the review was addressing hydraulic fracturing for all unconventional gas and oil. Both Cumberland County and the Town of Amherst have passed resolutions opposing hydraulic fracturing.

First Nations organizations have also indicated their opposition to hydraulic fracturing for unconventional gas and oil. As noted in Chapter 10 of the Wheeler Review, “Mi’kmaq representatives were clear that the Mi’kmaq are opposed to all activities associated with hydraulic fracturing taking place on their traditional lands, and their priority is to protect the lands and the waters.” [4]

Further, the Native Council of Nova Scotia informed the Review, “The community of Mi’kmaq/Aboriginal peoples continuing on traditional ancestral homelands organized as the Native Council of Nova Scotia oppose the practice of hydraulic fracturing for oil and gas in Nova Scotia.” [5]

There is nothing in these positions that implies that some types of hydraulic fracturing for unconventional gas are acceptable. These statements should have a significant bearing on the government’s approach to potentially excluding from the Act, some types of hydraulic fracturing for unconventional gas from this Act.

3. Legislated prohibition 

We applaud the decision to adopt a legislated prohibition of hydraulic fracturing, so that this prohibition cannot be lifted without public notification and discussion and vote in the Legislature following established legislative procedures.

4. Municipal rights

We suggest that the Act should specifically acknowledge that municipalities have the right to enact bans or other restrictions on hydraulic fracturing for unconventional oil and gas.

This would be consistent with the concept of community consent recommended by the Wheeler review, and address some potential problems discussed in Chapter 9 of the panel’s report.   If the Act or administrative moratorium is ever modified or lifted to authorize hydraulic fracturing, the authority of municipalities to prohibit and restrict hydraulic fracturing within their municipal boundaries would be preserved.

5. Continue the administrative moratorium on hydraulic fracturing for any unconventional oil and gas excluded from the Act.

We assume that government will not lift, and we strongly recommend that the government maintain, the present administrative moratorium on any uses of hydraulic fracturing for unconventional oil and gas that are excluded from the Act. The administrative moratorium should remain in place until the government addresses all of the issues raised by the Wheeler review as they apply to all categories of unconventional gas or oil excluded from the Act.

In particular, given the wide range of potential risks, the Wheeler report demonstrates there are significant shortfalls in current understanding of the risks of all forms of the unconventional oil and gas industry in a wide range of areas, including but not limited to a specific need for study of the unique geology and watersheds of the Province. Only after all relevant information is available and digested can the Province reasonably consider a framework of legislation and regulations.

In addition, mechanisms, funding and staff with necessary technical expertise and capacity for timely mitigation of impacts, would need to be put into place in a substantially different way than presently exists.  As the Wheeler report points out, the existing regulations and Provincial permitting, monitoring and enforcement are not adequate to address the risks involved with the extraction of unconventional gas and oil, in fact or from the public’s perspective. Such a re-structuring would need to be transparent, involve significant public input and be science-based. Community consent, including First Nations consent, would have to be required.

Hydraulic fracturing is used in extraction of CBM in many, possibly most, projects, even if it is not used in the initial stages of development. Hydraulic fracturing for CBM [and in tight sands, as noted above] involves many of the same risks noted with fracking for any unconventional oil and gas, including wastewater leaks, spills, treatment and disposal issues, surface impacts, methane build up in wells and methane escape. If hydraulic fracturing is carried out close to the surface, risk of aquifer contamination increases. (CCA, Wheeler)

6. No consent, or implied consent, for hydraulic fracturing for CBM in Pictou County East Coast Energy project.

We want to clarify that, to the best of our knowledge, there is no existing public or First Nations consent for hydraulic fracturing for coal bed methane in the Pictou County project involving East Coast Energy. Public statements by you, as Minister, and by representatives of East Coast Energy assured the public that no hydraulic fracturing would be taking place.

First Nations consent to the East Coast Energy project was given on the basis that the project did not involve hydraulic fracturing, according to a Community Notice issued by the Mi’kmaq Rights Initiative. [6]

The formal and informal consents for initial drilling for coal bed methane in the New Glasgow area should not be mistaken for consent for hydraulic fracturing for coal bed methane.

7. Purpose of the Act

We recommend that the Act state that its purpose is to protect the environment and health of Nova Scotians, and to ensure that the natural resources of the province are to be stewarded in the best interests of Nova Scotians.

[No further text]

encs. (2)

[1] Report of the Nova Scotia Independent Panel on Hydraulic Fracturing, 2014, p. 7.

[2] The scientific database developed by Physicians, Scientists and Engineers for Healthy Energy group’s shale and tight sands together, as indicated by the title, Shale and Tight Gas Literature Citation Database.

[3] In Environmental Public Health Dimensions of Shale and Tight Gas Development, Shonkoff et al note, “For this review, we focused primarily on literature directly pertinent to the human health dimensions of shale and tight gas development. “Tight gas” refers to natural gas produced from reservoir rocks of low permeability, such as shale or sandstone. Shale gas and other forms of tight gas are referred to as “unconventional” because of their atypical reservoirs, which require new production techniques.” Shonkoff notes that “most of the environmental public health–relevant scientific literature on modern oil and gas production has focused on the development of natural gas from shale formations”, but further note that their review covers, “where appropriate, scientific literature on other forms of unconventional or tight gas development that include the most prominent and relevant features of shale gas development, such as high-volume, horizontal hydraulic fracturing.”

[4] Report of the Nova Scotia Independent Panel on Hydraulic Fracturing, 2014, Chapter 10, p 283

[5] Ibid

[6] A Community Notice from the Mi’kmak Rights Initiative, October 30, 2013, states: “Chief Gerard Julian, Assembly Co-Chair and Lead Chief of the Energy Portfolio, along with KMKNO met with the Province today to ensure that:
a)      this project does not include hydraulic fracturing;”

and further notes “We have been informed that this project does not involve fracking and that the Authority to Drill does not provide East Coast Energy with approval to produce gas, if gas is found.” Document appended.

Joint Statement for a Continued Fracking Moratorium: Please sign on

Groups and organizations from across Nova Scotia and beyond are indicating support for a 10-year legislated moratorium on fracking by endorsing a Joint Statement. The Statement will be presented to Premier Steven MacNeil after release of the Final Report of the Wheeler Review of Hydraulic Fracturing. The Final Report is expected to be released in mid-August. The government has indicated that there will be a short comment period, and then they will make a decision, including whether to lift the present moratorium.

The government still seems to doubt that the vast majority of Nova Scotians do not want fracking. The joint statement is one more way to indicate that support for a continued moratorium is strong and widespread.  Groups and organizations, large and small, from all sectors are invited to add their voices to this statement.

Already, the Joint Statement for a Continued Fracking Moratorium has gathered the support of over 30 organizations, including the Anglican Dioscese of Nova Scotia and PEI, the Hants Federation of Agriculture, the Cape Breton Blacksmith’s Association, Nova Scotia Citizens Health Care Network, the Public Service Alliance of Canada, Eastern Shore Forest Watch, and many more.

The statement also notes that without Mi’kmaq consent for hydraulic fracturing, which does not exist, the moratorium on fracking must continue.

Please add your organizations’ name to the Joint Statement.

Contact Jennifer West,

Read the statement

List of groups and organizations endorsing the statement


We Say No – Joint Statement for a Continued Moratorium on Fracking

K’JIPUKTUK (Halifax) — The panel reviewing hydraulic fracturing in Nova Scotia has completed its community information sessions across the province. Dr. Wheeler has been clear that much is still unknown about the risks and benefits to Nova Scotians.

During this review, the Native Council of Nova Scotia and the Nova Scotia Native Women’s Association have announced their official opposition to fracking.

Given that:

•    All three political parties have stated that the existing moratorium will remain until fracking is proven to be safe;

•    The panel has not proven that there is common understanding of the full extent of risks associated with fracking;

•    The panel has not proven that fracking can be done safely at this point in time; and that

•     Members of the aboriginal community have indicated that they do not give their consent for hydraulic fracturing.

We, the undersigned organizations, call for a legislated moratorium on hydraulic fracturing in Nova Scotia for at least ten years.

We also recognize Indigenous title rights as upheld by the Supreme Court of Canada, and that a moratorium on fracking must remain in place until the Mi’kmaq community gives its consent.


If your organization would like to endorse this statement, contact:

Jennifer West, Geoscience Coordinator, Ecology Action Centre

442-5046, 471-3301 (cell),


Click here for an updated list of signatories





Public Information Sessions

Profile Picture 4Upcoming information sessions are being held around Nova Scotia.  Attend and voice your concerns!!!

The review panel is hosting public meetings to present their draft recommendations for government.  Plan to attend and share your concerns about the papers, the review process or about fracking!  Click here to download a toolkit for the public sessions!  A schedule of sessions is provided below.  

Read more

Response to Paper 5: Water

This is a response to the draft paper titled “What are the interactions between unconventional gas resources and water resources? Input quality and quantity requirements and water treatment needs and impacts” (referred to as the “draft paper”). The draft paper does not provide a reasoned scientific evaluation of the risks posed by hydraulic fracturing on water resources. Overall, the draft paper offers superficial consideration of the risks.

The draft paper gives relatively little consideration to the risks of water contamination posed by the hydraulic fracturing industry from cradle to grave and beyond. The analysis of risks to water needs to include the risks: Read more

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